CPT Codes For Drug Testing. CPT Codes, short for Current Procedural Terminology Codes, are the standard codes used by US medical professionals such as physicians and healthcare providers in reporting and documenting medical, surgical, anesthesiology, laboratory, radiology, evaluation and management services. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes are developed by the American Medical Association to describe every type of service (i.e., tests, surgeries, evaluations, and any other medical procedures) a healthcare provider provides to a patient.   They are submitted to insurance, Medicare, or other payers for reimbursement purposes.

Intent and key principles

ANSI/UL 4600 Standard for Safety for the Evaluation of Autonomous Products encompasses fully autonomous systems that move such as self-driving cars along with applications in mining, agriculture, maintenance, and other vehicles including lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It seeks to specifically address the ability of autonomous products to perform safely and as intended- without human intervention- based on their current state and sensing of the operating environment. Reliability of hardware and software necessary for machine learning, sensing of operating environment and other safety aspects of autonomy is also addressed. It is envisioned that future end-product standards will tailor UL 4600 to address specialized applications.

The Standard uses a claim-based approach which prescribes topics that must be addressed in creating a safety case. It is intended to address changes required from traditional safety practices to accommodate autonomy, such as lack of human operator to take fault mitigation actions.

Topics covered in the Standard include safety case construction, risk analysis, safety relevant aspects of design process, testing, tool qualification, autonomy validation, data integrity, human-machine interaction (for non-drivers), life cycle concerns, metrics and conformance assessment. Security is addressed as a requirement, but details are currently outside the scope of the proposed Standard.

Conversely, UL 4600 does not cover performance criteria or define pass/fail criteria for safety; nor does it benchmark the road testing of prototype vehicles. The standard does not set acceptable risk levels nor set forth requirements for ethical product release decisions and any ethical aspects of product behavior.

UL 4600 remains technology neutral, meaning that it does not mandate the use of any specific technology in creating the autonomous system, and it also permits design process flexibility. Furthermore, it covers validation of any machine learning-based functionality and other autonomy functions used in life critical applications.

Compliance with UL 4600 permits (but does not require conformance to) other safety standards such as ISO 26262, ISO/PAS 21448, IEC 61508, MIL STD 882, etc., as well as security standards where such conformity is demonstrated.

A webinar was held in October, 2019 to provide an overview of UL 4600 to coincide with the release of the standard's review draft.

Download the slides to this webinar.

Standards Technical Panel membership


The Standards Technical Panel (STP) includes subject matter experts from fields including automotive manufacturers, robotics, aviation, rail, process control safety and military systems. Other participants represent a consumer advocacy organization, insurance companies, state and federal government transportation and regulatory agencies and universities.

The STP has strong international participation with representatives from the U.S., Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, China, Japan, Singapore and other countries. Organizations and individuals with interest or technical expertise in the subject category are encouraged to apply for membership on the UL 4600 Standards Technical Panel or to participate as a stakeholder by registering at CSDS.ul.com.

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The development effort also received considerable support from a broad set of international stakeholders. These partners also provided significant time and effort, and Underwriters Laboratories is grateful for their contributions.

The knowledge shared and questions asked by this diverse group of panel members and stakeholders is conducive to an effective, sustainable standard thanks to the unique perspectives each participant brings to the process.

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Contact us

If you have questions, comments or would like more information about collaborating with UL Standards on this or other standards development work, please contact us via our secure online form.


Resource 1: Underwriters Laboratories publishes autonomous vehicle Standard (press release)

Resource 2: UL 4600 on shopULstandards.com

The Code Laboratories Playstation Eye module provides an interface to the Playstation Eye Camera using the Code Laboratories Eye driver. The CL Drivers provide numerous interface components to the Playstation Cameras including the ability to access more than one camera at a time. This provides the ability to utilize these cameras for stereo purposes.

While not typical webcameras the Playstation Eye cameras do provide for very high speed fps (frames per second) and good low light sensitivities which can make the cameras very useful in certain situations. Additional calibration and keystoning capabilities provide for numerous configuration options which make the camera appropriate for many applications.



1. Camera Name - select the appropriate camera. This is the camera GUID as defined by the camera hardware.
2. Video Format

CLEYE_MONO_PROCESSED - black & white processed image (calibration & keystoning)
CLEYE_COLOR_PROCESSED - color processed image (calibration & keystoning)
CLEYE_MONO_RAW - black & white not processed
CLEYE_COLOR_RAW - color image
CLEYE_BAYER_RAW - unprocessed color image

3.Video Size
QVGA - 320x240 image size
VGA - 640x480 image size

4. Frame Rate - The requested frames per second from the camera
5. Set As Image Marker - Save the current image as a marker (memory image).
6. Gain - refers to the amplitude or magnification of the incoming video. Higher gain levels result in greater levels of brightness and contrast. Lower levels of gain will darken the image, and reduce the contrast. Essentially, gain modification affects the sensitivity to light of the CCD sensors. This concept is analogous to the ISO or ASA ratings of silver halide films in digital cameras.

7. Exposure - refers to how long your camera takes to record an image. In a well-lit scene, exposure times can be very short because plenty of light is available stimulate the CCD pixels with enough energy to record an image. At nighttime, exposure time will increase dramatically due to the near absence of light. A quick exposure time will also reduce motion blur, whereas a slow will introduce more blur if the object is moving.

Code Laboratories Ps3 Eye Driver

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8. Brightness - refers to an intensity or luminosity scale that ranges from totally black to totally white and has no effect on color values.

9. Whitebalance Red/Blue/Green - refers to the adjustment of the relative amounts of red, and blue primary colors in an image such that neutral colors are reproduced correctly.

10. Keystone - Adjusts the horizontal and vertical perspective to adjust for non-perpendicular image planes.

11. Zoom - Adjusts the amount of image zoom.

12. Lens Correction - Amount of radial correction to perform on the image to correct for lens distortion.

13. X Offset - Horizontal offset from center of screen to center of imaging CCD.

14. Y Offset - Vertical offset from center of screen to center of imaging CCD.

15. Rotation - Amount of image rotation to correct for rotation of imaging CCD.


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You will need to download and install the Code Laboratories Platform SDK as the module needs the CLEyeMulticam.dll in order to work. You should also NOT being currently accessing the camera from the built in webcam accessible camera. As webcams are NOT shared resources you can only access the camera from one application at a time. Be sure the CAMERA button is not currently connected to the same camera.



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