The MOJAVE LT is the latest technological achievement of the Air Techniques development team. A 1.5 HP variable frequency driven (VFD) regenerative blower is engineered to deliver the highest performance while hardly making a sound. ScanX ILE Drivers and Utilities is an application released by the software company Air Techniques Inc. Some computer users try to erase it. Sometimes this is efortful because deleting this by hand takes some experience regarding removing Windows programs manually. Air Techniques has specially formulated PSP Cleaning Wipes for all of your intraoral and extraoral phosphor storage plates (PSPs) and plate protectors.

Gravity adds to your__ when driving downhill.
A.) momentum
B.) braking power
C.) weight
D.) gas consumption
ANSWER: weight
The force of impact is____.
A.) the speed at which you can comer a curve
B.) the force generated when objects meet
C.) the force necessary to overcome a hill
D.) the energy used to successfully brake
ANSWER: the force generated when objects meet
Friction is the
A.) amount of air in your tires
B.) energy that helps your car stay in motion
C.) cost of gas prices
D.) resistance of movement between two surfaces in contact
ANSWER: resistance of movement between two surfaces in contact
Which of the following is a good technique to use when driving in an urban environment
A.) Passing
B.) Drowsy driving
C.) Cover braking
D.) Drifting
ANSWER: Cover braking
If a call or text comes in while driving, you should _____.
A.) only check it at a stop light
B.) only check it at a STOP sign
C.) check it immediately in case of emergency
D.) resist and wait until the end of your trip
ANSWER: resist and wait until the end of your trip
A distraction is something that prevents someone from _____.
A.) driving as fast as they want to
B.) giving full attention to something else
C.) giving any attention to something else
D.) remembering something important
ANSWER: giving full attention to something else
The basic idea behind eco-driving is to _____ with more thoughtful driving techniques and behavior.
A.) increase your gas mileage
B.) save driving time
C.) reduce your drag
D.) avoid collisions
ANSWER: increase your gas mileage
2. The basic idea behind eco-driving is to _____ with more thoughtful driving techniques and behavior.
A.) decrease or eliminate fossil fuel consumption
B.) save driving time
C.) reduce your drag
D.) avoid collisions
ANSWER: decrease or eliminate fossil fuel consumption
Which of the following is one of the most effective actions you can take as an eco-driver?
A.) avoid unnecessary idling.
B.) drive with the windows down.
C.) don’t drive with passengers.
D.) never use air conditioning.
ANSWER: avoid unnecessary idling.
Eco-driving is a driving strategy that reduces your impact on ______ while saving you money and making you a safer driver.
A.) road deterioration
B.) the environment
C.) plastic waste
D.) paper waste
ANSWER: the environment
Which of the following is not a good way to conserve fuel and reduce emissions?
A.) Filling your gas tank to the brim
B.) Keeping your tires inflated and aligned
C.) Have your air conditioner serviced regularly
ANSWER: Filling your gas tank to the brim
Targeting encourages drivers to scan far ahead and _____________.
A.) focus their visual attention on the next point on the road
B.) check the road behind the vehicle
C.) reach their destination faster
D.) do not look to the sides
ANSWER: focus their visual attention on the next point on the road
Most sleep-related crashes happen ____________.
A.) between 2 a.m.) and 6 a.m.
B.) at 4 a.m.
C.) after midnight till 5 a.m.
ANSWER: between 2 a.m.) and 6 a.m.
EXPLANATION: In general, you'll feel most inclined to sleep between midnight and 6 a.m., and between 1 p.m. and 3 p.m.
When you do a vehicle check, what do you NOT need to keep an eye on?
A.) Proper tire inflation
B.) Cleanliness of windows and mirrors
C.) Functioning indicator lights and headlights
D.) Blind spot locations
ANSWER: Blind spot locations
Another name for dash lights is _______.
A.) vehicle problem indicators
B.) vehicle warning indicators
C.) vehicle status indicators
D.) vehicle caution indicators
ANSWER: vehicle warning indicators
Which of the following is NOT information you can find on the dashboard?
A.) Vehicle speed
B.) Engine temperature
C.) Amount of fuel remaining
D.) Recommended tire pressure
ANSWER: Recommended tire pressure
After adjusting your seat, your _____ should be as close as possible to the backrest.
A.) hands
B.) arms
C.) bottom
D.) legs
ANSWER: bottom
You should always adjust the seat as ____ as possible, while staying comfortable.
You should always adjust the seat as ____ as possible when driving, while staying comfortable.
A.) high
B.) even
C.) low
D.) close
ANSWER: high
when adjusting your side mirrors, the horizon should be _______ the mirror.
A.) above the center of
B.) across the center of
C.) below the center of
D.) directly behind
ANSWER: across the center of

Structured analytic techniques are simply a 'box of tools' to help the analyst mitigate the adverse impact on analysis of one's cognitive limitations and pitfalls. Taken alone, they do not constitute an analytic method for solving geospatial analytic problems. The most distinctive characteristic is that structured techniques help to decompose one's geospatial thinking in a manner that enables it to be reviewed, documented, and critiqued. 'A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques for Improving Intelligence Analysis' (CIA, 2009) highlights a few structured analytic techniques used in the private sector, academia, and the intelligence profession.

Structured thinking in general and structured geospatial thinking specifically is at variance with the way in which the human mind is in the habit of working. Most people solve geospatial problems intuitively by trial and error. Structured analysis is a relatively new approach to intelligence analysis with the driving forces behind the use of these techniques being:

  • an increased understanding of cognitive limitations and pitfalls that make intelligence analysis difficult;
  • prominent intelligence failures that have prompted reexamination of how intelligence analysis is generated;
  • DNI policy support and technical support for interagency collaboration; and
  • a desire by policy makers who receive analysis that it be more transparent as to how conclusions were reached.
Air techniques drivers

In general, the Intelligence Community began focusing on structured techniques because analytic failures led to the recognition that it had to do a better job overcoming cognitive limitations, analytic pitfalls, and addressing the problems associated with mindsets. Structured analytic techniques help the mind think more rigorously about an analytic problem. In the geospatial realm, they ensure that our key geospatial assumptions, biases, and cognitive patterns are not just assumed correct but are well considered. The use of these techniques later helps to review the geospatial analysis and identify the cause of any error.

Moreover, structured techniques provide a variety of tools to help reach a conclusion. Even if both intuitive and scientific approaches provide the same degree of accuracy, structured techniques have value in that they can be easily used to balance the art and science of their analysis. It is clear is that structured methodologies are severely neglected by the geospatial community. Even in the rare cases where a specific technique is used, no one technique is appropriate to every step of the problem solving process.

There are two ways to view the nature of these techniques. Heuer categorized structured techniques by how they help analysts overcome human cognitive limitations or pitfalls to analysis. Heuer's grouping is as follows:

  • Decomposition and Visualization: The number of things most people can keep in working memory at one time is seven, plus or minus two. Complexity increases geometrically as the number of variables increases. In other words, it is very difficult to do error-free analysis only in our heads. The two basic tools for coping with complexity in the analysis are to: (1) break things down into their component parts, so that we can deal with each part separately, and (2) put all the parts down on paper or a computer screen in some organized manner such as a list, matrix, map, or tree so that we and others can see how they interrelate as we work with them. Many common techniques serve this purpose.
  • Indicators, Signposts, Scenarios: The human mind tends to see what it expects to see and to overlook the unexpected. Change often happens so gradually that we do not see it, or we rationalize it as not being of fundamental importance until it is too obvious to ignore. Identification of indicators, signposts, and scenarios create an awareness that prepares the mind to recognize change.
  • Challenging Mindsets: A simple definition of a mindset is “a set of expectations through which a human being sees the world.” Our mindset, or mental model of how things normally work in another country, enables us to make assumptions that fill in the gaps when needed evidence is missing or ambiguous. When this set of expectations turns out to be wrong, it often leads to intelligence failure. Techniques for challenging mindsets include reframing the question in a way that helps break mental blocks, structured confrontation such as devil’s advocacy or red teaming, and structured self-critique such as what we call a key assumption check. In one sense, all structured techniques that are implemented in a small team or group process also serve to question your mindset. Team discussions help us identify and evaluate new evidence or arguments and expose us to diverse perspectives on the existing evidence or arguments.
  • Hypothesis Generation and Testing: “Satisficing” is the tendency to accept the first answer that comes to mind that is “good enough.” This is commonly followed by confirmation bias, which refers to looking at the evidence only from the perspective of whether or not it supports a preconceived answer. These are among the most common causes of intelligence failure. Good analysis requires identifying, considering, and weighing the evidence both for and against all the reasonably possible hypotheses, explanations, or outcomes. Analysis of Competing Hypotheses is one technique for doing this.
  • Group Process Techniques: Just as analytic techniques provide structure to our individual thought processes, they also provide structure to the interaction of analysts within a team or group. Most structured techniques are best used as a collaborative group process, because a group is more effective than an individual in generating new ideas and at least as effective in synthesizing
    divergent ideas. The structured process helps identify differences in perspective between team or group members, and this is good. The more divergent views are available, the stronger the eventual synthesis of these views. The specific techniques listed under this category, such as brainstorming and Delphi, are designed as group processes and can only be implemented in a group.

Others have grouped techniques by their purpose:

  • Diagnostic techniques are primarily aimed at making analytic arguments, assumptions, or intelligence gaps more transparent;
  • Contrarian techniques explicitly challenge current thinking; and
  • Imaginative thinking techniques aim at developing new insights, different perspectives and/or develop alternative outcomes. In fact, many of the techniques will do some combination of these functions.

Air Techniques Scanx Drivers

These different groupings of the techniques notwithstanding, the analysts should select the technique that best accomplishes the specific task they set out for themselves. The techniques are not a guarantee of analytic precision or accuracy of judgments; they do improve the usefulness, sophistication, and credibility of intelligence assessments.

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